The Turing machine revisited:The computational complexity of a visually conscious machine.

Document Type: 
ASSC Conference Item
Article Type: 
Theory of Consciousness
Consciousness, Conscious Machines, Visual “Seeing” Machines, Self-Consciousness, and Neuronal Correlate of a
Deposited by: 
Dr. Alan Rosen
Date of Issue: 
Alan Rosen, David Rosen
Event Dates: 
22-25 Jun 2007
Event Location: 
Las Vegas
Event Title: 
11th annual meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness
Event Type: 
ASSC Conference
Presentation Type: 
Issue Number: 
Number of Pages: 
Official URL:
Alternative URL:
In this paper the authors prove that a conscious machine can exist and specify the conditions that must be satisfied for its existence. Alan Turing demonstrated, in his 1950 paper (Mind 59:433-460), with calculations, the infeasibility of cognitive machines when explicit programming was their only knowledge acquisition tool (cognition could be achieved only with the addition of an interpreter and humanized interfaces). The authors show that Turing’s main principles, the addition of an interpreter and humanized interfaces, may be replaced by sequential algorithmic programming when the modalities of receptors are taken into consideration. These modalities lead to a fundamental law in biology - the law of specific nerve energy - that relates consciousness to explicit neuronal activity (Neuronal Correlate of Modality). This law may be used to prove that “conscious” machines can exist, and can exhibit forms of consciousness similar to human consciousness. The design of such a conscious machine, a tactile-visual humanoid robotic machine, has already been implemented (Rosen & Rosen, and ASSC E-archive). The tactile-visual system, that simulates human visual cognition, is designed with explicit programming as the only knowledge-acquisition tool. All the explicit programming of the machine is performed with a finite, non-exponential number of steps, according to physical-optical laws. Furthermore, the machine may experience the subjective experiences of “seeing” or “feeling” the objects that it interacts with.
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