Positive and Negative Congruency Effects in Masked Priming: A Neuro-computational Model Based on Representation, Attention, and Conflict
Studies on masked and unmasked priming have long shown reliable positive effects of thecongruent prime on target processing. Paradoxically, a negative effect has also been found,showing faster and more accurate responses in the incongruent compared to the congruenttrials. Positive effects have been found with a short time between the prime and the target,while negative effects have been foundwitha long timebetween the prime and the target. Thishas been modeled by assuming that the prime initiates a motor self-inhibitory process thatcauses these effects (Bowman, H., Schlaghecken, F., Eimer,M., 2006. A neural networkmodel ofinhibitory processes and cognitive control. Vis. Cogn. 13, 401–480). We have developed analternative explanation based on attentional neuro-modulation. In this paper we show thatattentional neuro-modulation can be used to model a wide range of findings in this area.